Key Issue: How did Britain resist and help to defeat Germany in the Second World War?
The BEF in Europe 1939-40: Dunkirk
• Sunday 3rd September 1939, 11am: Chamberlain broadcasts that Britain has declared war: ‘it is evil things that we shall be fighting – brute force, bad faith, injustice, oppression and persecution’. Poland falls – Britain can do nothing:
• ‘Phoney War’ – no fighting, just preparations (Barrage balloons / Pillar boxes were painted with yellow gas-sensitive paint/ 38 million gas-masks/ 400m sandbags/ London zoo killed all poisonous snakes)/ RAF drops 12 million propaganda leaflets on Germany/.
• 11 Sept: British Expeditionary Force of four divisions – 158,000 men with 25,000 vehicles – to France, but too small and poorly-equipped. (France’s strategy was dominated by the Maginot line).
• 9 April: Denmark captured (surrenders after 1 day). Norway falls (9 June) – Quisling sets up collaboration govt.
• 10 May: Hitler invades Holland, Belgium and France. Churchill becomes PM.
• 14 May: Holland surrenders. Belgium falls (28 May). France invaded – defeated – Vichy puppet government.
• 22 May: Britain begins to withdraw BEF (‘Operation Dynamo’). Navy, ferries, and small craft from beaches. 345,000 troops evacuated. Used to build morale: in public, Churchill described it as ‘a miracle of deliverance’. In reality: BEF left 2,500 guns, 84,500 vehicles, 77,000 tons ammunition, 416,000 tons supplies and 165,000 tons petrol. 68,000 soldiers killed/ prisoner. In private, Churchill called Dunkirk ‘the greatest military defeat for many centuries’.
Battle of Britain
• Hitler’s invasion plan (‘Operation Sealion’).
• Luftwaffe v. RAF (Hurricanes an Spitfires)/ radar stations/ Air Chief Marshall Dowding (reorganised RAF into four Groups)/ Lord Beaverbrook (owner of Daily Express: May 1940, Churchill put him in charge of aircraft production).
• Air war starts 12 August; at first RAF lost many planes and pilots (‘Dowding’s chicks’).
• 2 Sep Luftwaffe switches to bombing cities.
• 15 Sep major Luftwaffe raid repulsed. Sealion called off. The RAF lost 1,173 planes and 510 pilots and gunners killed in the Battle of Britain. The Luftwaffe lost 1,733 planes and 3,368 airmen killed or captured.
Battle of the Atlantic
• 4 Sep 1939: a Nazi U-boat sinks the SS Athena – 112 passengers died.
• 15 Sep 1939: the first convoy sets sail from Canada.
• 30 Sep 1939: The Nazi cruiser the Graf Spee (sunk 17 Dec) sinks a British cargo ship.
• 20 Nov 1939: the Nazis drop magnetic mines, which sink British shipping.
• After summer 1940: U-boat ‘wolf-packs’. The Navy did not have enough ships to protect the convoys – eg Nov 1940 convoy HX–84 (37 ships) was attacked – the armed merchant cruiser HMS Jervis Bay and five merchant ships sunk.
• August 1940: US gave Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for Atlantic naval bases, and, after August 1941, signed the Atlantic Charter – a promise to help Britain.
• Huge losses – Jan 1942 to March 1943: 7 million tons of merchant shipping was sunk. In July 1942, 143 ships were sunk in a single month, and in November 1942, 117 ships.
• 8 things helped the Allies to stop the U-boats: codebreakers at Bletchley Park (in May 1931 the British captured the U-100, including an Enigma code machine)/ ‘console sonar’ which could plot accurate bearings using an echo ‘ping’/ radar/ HF-DF (‘huff-duff’: worked out U-boat positions from radio transmissions)/ 6 aircraft carriers patrol the Atlantic/ air-dropped depth-bombs/ Weapons called Hedgehog and Squid catapult depth-charges up to 300 yards in front of attack ships/ hunter-killer groups of ships, inc. aircraft carrier + destroyer escorts.
• The turning point was slow Convoy ONS–5 (April–May 1943: 43 merchantmen escorted by 2 destroyers and a frigate) attacked by a wolf-pack of 30 U-boats. Although 13 merchant ships were sunk, the U-Boats were detected by HF-DF, and six U-boats were sunk. It was the end of the U-Boat menace – 37 U-Boats were lost in May 1943, and 34 in July.
• Nazis counter-measures: anti-aircraft guns, Snorkel (allowed U-Boats to refresh air without surfacing), ‘Bottoming’.
• 1939-45, 2,753 Allied ships were sunk (gross tonnage 14.5 million) at a cost of 783 Nazi U-boats.
D-Day and the defeat of Germany
• ‘Operation Overlord’ to dislodge Hitler from ‘Fortress Europe’. Led by the American General Ike Eisenhower.
• NOT Calais (where Nazi fortifications were strongest), but Normandy.
• Aerial recon., guide books, holiday photos, sailing books, French spies, Col Sam Bassett landed secretly at night.
• Thousands of Americans. Months of training. ‘Mulberries’ and ‘Hobart’s funnies’.
• Some men at Dover (+ wooden tanks) AND a Spanish double agent convinced the Nazis that the main invasion was at Calais, and that the Normandy attack was just a diversion. Navy ships to & fro near Calais to fool Nazi radar.
• 3 am, 6 June 1944: 6,000 ships/ 200,000 seamen/ 185,000 soldiers/ 20,000 vehicles/ 20,000 men dropped by parachute or landed in gliders behind enemy lines/ 11,000 planes/ 7 battleships, 23 cruisers and 105 destroyers.
• British and Canadians at Gold, Juno, Sword (4500 casualties but captured a large area). Americans at Utah (only 210 casualties) and Omaha (B17 bombers overshoot/ Nazi defences dug into the cliffs/ the Nazis had just moved in their crack 352nd Division/ powerful tide sinks many landing craft = 3,000 casualties).
• By end of D-Day, 132,715 men ashore, and by 12 June 2 million men were in Normandy.
• Paris falls in August (counter-attack: ‘Battle of the Bulge’) Allies invade Germany and meet Russians (23 April 1945).
• On 7 May, 1945, the Nazis surrendered – it was VE Day (Victory in Europe)!
Key Issue: How did the war change life in Britain?
• 1-3 Sep 1939: 827,000 children and 535,000 pregnant mothers evacuated from towns to the country.
• Some excited, some homesick. Some had never seen farm animals. Some nightmare evacuees – swore/ pee-ed on wallpaper/ had never worn underclothes, eaten food from a table or slept in a bed/ filthy/ naughty/ Many wet the bed. Some hosts were dirty and abusive.
• Many went home during Phoney War.
• Nb evacuation broke down class ignorance and helped to speed up the Welfare State.
• May 1939: Military Training Act (men 20-22 could be called up for 6 months military training).
• 3 September 1939: National Service (Armed Forces) Act (all men 18-40 became liable for call-up under the new. (In Jan 1940: 2m men aged 20–27 were called up.).
• 1941 the age limit had to be raised to 51.
• Tax inspectors, engineers, coal miners exempt (needed at home).
• Tribunals for Conscientious Objectors (sent to farms, hospitals, in the Pacifist Service Units, Friends Ambulance Unit on the battlefront). 60,000 objectors sent to prison.
• May 1940: Emergency Powers Act (can conscript workers into essential industries – in 1943, 22,000 ‘Bevin boys’ were conscripted to work in the mines).
• March 1941: Essential Works Order (women 20-30 liable for conscription into war work).
• Nb also day care nurseries/ welfare facilities/ ‘fair wages’ (helps Welfare State).
Censorship and propaganda
• 22 Jan 1940: newsreels are censored by the government Ministry of Information.
• 6 Feb 1940: Ministry of Information launches its ‘Careless Talk Costs Lives’ campaign. Censorship.
• Mass Observation monitors public morale.
• Radio: Listen while you Work/ The Kitchen Front/ ITMA/ Sincerely Yours (Vera Lynn sang for British soldiers).
• Black propaganda (Political Warfare Executive pretends to be a rebel German radio station).
The Blitz and air-raid precautions
• Blackout – 31 Dec 1939: New Year revellers shining torches are arrested/ Sirens/ Anderson shelter/ Morrison Shelter/ Underground and ‘trekking’ to the fields/ Anti-aircraft (‘ack-ack’) guns/ High explosives (HEs)/ Incendiaries – in clusters called ‘Molotovs’/ Parachute bombs/ ‘Carpet- bombing’/ 90% of houses in London damaged/ 14-15 November 1940 Coventry was so badly bombed that the Nazis coined the word: ‘coventrate’/ Baedecker Raids on tourist and historical sites.
• Firemen/ Fire-watchers/ Rescue workers/ ARP (‘Put that light out’)/ Women’s Voluntary Service (tea and blankets)/ Bomb disposal men/ Local Defence Volunteers = Home Guard (‘Dad’s Army’).
• By the end of November 1939, 74,000 Germans had been interviewed to see if they were loyal – 64,000 were said to be ‘Category C’ – loyal. At first only 600 Germans were interned (imprisoned) because they were ‘Category A’ (a danger to Britain). Grew during 1940 and women were also interned.
• When Italy declared war on Britain (1940), Churchill ordered all Italians in Britain arrested, and by July 1940, 27,000 Germans and Italians interned. By summer 1941, after fear of invasion had fallen, this number had fallen to 5,000.
The role of women
• Sept 1939: 25,000 women join the Women’s Land Army.
• After December 1941, women aged 20–30 could be conscripted to the women’s armed forces (though not to fight) : WRNS, WAAF, ATS – by 1944 half of the 450,000 women who had joined up were in the ATS (most dangerous/ ATS girls also had a bad name because it was said that they slept with the men).
• After 1941, women aged 18–40 could be conscripted to work in any war industry in any place of the country.
• The number of women employed rose from 5 million to 8 million 1939–1943/ number of women working in the munitions industry rose from half a million to two million/ by 1943, 9 out of every 10 single women doing war work.
• At first the government did not conscript married women, and women with children under 14 could not be sent away from home. After 1943, the government began to conscript married women as well. Some men opposed this because they thought the women would ‘dilute’ men’s wages (women never got equal wages with men).
Rationing and the effects of submarine warfare
• 22 Sept 1939: petrol rationing/ 8 Jan 1940: butter, sugar and bacon/ 30 Jan 1940: national campaign is organised to collect scrap metal, paper, and food waste (for pig-swill)/ 3 Apr 1940: Lord Woolton appointed Minister of Food/ 12 Feb 1940: paper/ 11 March 1940: meat rationing.
• Coupons/ Black market/ Dig for Victory/ Potato Pete and Dr Carrot/ SPAM/ Dried eggs/ Women’s Voulntary Service collections (and COGS for children)/ Utility clothing (swapshops)/ Utility furniture/ 6” water in the bath.
• People healthier at end of war (helps Welfare State)!