Rise of Empire 1660-1770

6525B – Paper 5B Mark Scheme
The Making of the British Empire, c.1660-c.1770

1. How important was Anglo-French rivalry in explaining the expansion of Britain’s overseas Empire in the period c.1660-c.1770? (60)

Indicative content
The question requires candidates to consider the expansion of the British Empire in the period c.1660-c.1770, and to consider the influence of a range of factors influencing the process and patterns of change. Central to this analysis is an assessment of the significance of Anglo-French rivalry in this period. At level 1 there will be some simple statements, and at level 2 some developed statements which describe some features of Anglo-French rivalry, perhaps related to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Seven Years War. Some other factors may be described or referred to, but the answer will be essentially descriptive, and the chronological range of material offered will be restricted. At level 3 there should be a causal focus which also addresses the role of some other relevant factors; and there should be a secure chronological range which touches on several key periods. On Anglo-French rivalry, answers may suggest that this was a feature of international relations through most of the period, and that peace treaties such as Utrecht in 1713 and Paris in 1763 never completely resolved this rivalry. Candidates may also note strained relationships in neighbouring colonies in India and North America, and the implications of these for British colonial expansion. Other relevant factors will include Anglo-Dutch rivalry in the late 17th century: the quest for colonial settlement and migration: commercial developments; and the growing size of the British navy compared with its European competitors. At level 3 and above the answer will be shaped on the question. At levels 4 and 5 a sustained argument will be developed, focusing on the role of Anglo-French rivalry, considering a range of other factors, and establishing the nature of change at key periods. An appreciation of these patterns will distinguish levels 4 and 5 from lower levels.

2.“It was the quest for trade which best explains the growth in the size and number of Britain’s overseas possessions in the period c.1660-c.1770”. How far do you agree with this judgement?(60)

Indicative content
The question requires candidates to consider reasons for the expansion of the British Empire in the period c.1660-c.1770, and to consider the influence of a range of factors influencing the process and patterns of change. Central to this analysis is an assessment of the significance of trade in this period. At level 1 there will be some simple statements, and at level 2 some developed statements which describe some features of Britain’s colonial trading patterns in the period, perhaps related to the staples of tobacco, sugar and coffee; and the role of the navy may also be described. Some other factors may be described or referred to, but the answer will be essentially descriptive, and the chronological range of material offered will be restricted. At level 3 there should be a causal focus which also addresses the role of some other relevant factors; and there should be a secure chronological range which touches on several key periods. On trading patterns, answers may suggest that this was a key feature of Anglo- colonial relations throughout the period, and may explain colonial growth in India and West Africa. Other relevant factors will include consideration of the growth of the American colonies, perhaps linked to migration and a rapidly growing population: commercial developments in Britain, such as the Act of Union of 1707 and the growth of overseas investment: the impact of various peace treaties with the Dutch, Spanish and French over the whole period; and naval and military considerations. At level 3 and above the answer will be shaped on the question. At levels 4 and 5 a sustained argument will be developed, focusing on the role of trade, considering a range of other factors, and establishing the nature of change at key periods. An appreciation of these patterns will distinguish levels 4 and 5 from lower levels. An overall judgement on the proposition should be established.

Advertisements
This entry was posted in A Level History, British Empire, Rise of Empire 1660-1760. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s